As the blooms of perennials start to fade, it is time to deadhead to encourage blooms to continue throughout the remainder of the summer months. Deadheading rejuvenates a plant’s appearance, delays the plant from going to seed and redirects the plant’s energy into root and vegetative growth. Most gardeners practice pruning to keep plants tidy and to extend the bloom period of certain perennials.
With perennials that produce several stalks of flowers above the foliage, such as Salvia (Meadow Sage), prune the center (oldest) stalk and leave the remaining two side stalks to produce new buds and blooms. For a visual, observe any three fingers on your hand that are next to each other. When you prune your salvia you will be cutting out the center stalk that is done blooming. On each side of the center stalk you will see two other (lateral) stalks with new buds emerging and blooms forming. If there are blooms done on the two side stalks you can cut those out as well. Only cut the spent stalks and the new flowers will form. I usually get about three blooms out of my salvia throughout the summer and into the early fall.
For Veronica (Spiked Speedwell), blooms start from the bottom of the stalk and work their way up. In the early stages of growth, the blooms will appear to be colorful on the bottom with green tips on the top of the stalk, making for very nice contrast! As the blooms mature, the entire stalk will be one color (mainly blue, purple, pink or white). Remove the spent blooms once the entire stalk has faded and the plant will produce new stalks and blooms to keep the interest coming. Deadheading will also encourage new light green foliage to emerge from the plant.
Daylily benefit from deadheading of faded blooms and removal of entire spent flower stalks. In mid-summer, when your daylilies are completing their first major bloom and producing seeds, remove faded flowers and seed stalks so that the plant’s energy goes back into producing new blooms. Clean up the appearance of the plant by removing any browned foliage, which usually can be seen around the base of the plant. While removing seed stalks will encourage more blooms, removing spent foliage will encourage new growth to rejuvenate the plant.
Other perennials that benefit from deadheading include, but are not limited to, Dianthus, Bee Balm, Lavender, False Sunflower, Coneflower, Yarrow, Blanket Flower, Butterfly Weed, Shasta Daisy and Aster.
By the second or third round of blooms, you may want to feed your plants to give them a boost and add energy for the rest of the season. (Note: Be sure not to feed in extreme heat as it can stress them, but rather wait for cooler temperatures). If your plants are brand new they may have been force bloomed, so for the first season you may only get one or two blooms, but come next year you will be able to push out three blooms on some plants if you time your pruning right. With regular maintenance of your perennials you can benefit from continuing blooms throughout the season.
Fall Clean-up Tip: GRASSES: Cutting back ornamental grasses in fall can be harmful to them since freezing temperatures and cold snow lying on the crown on the plant can “hollow” them out. Grasses should be cut back in late March/early April once the threat of frost is gone and before new growth appears. If you want to tidy up your ornamental grasses, cut them back half-way in fall and leave the remainder of cutting back to spring. Leaving the grass during the wintertime also provides interest to the garden while preventing damage to its center.
The same technique should be used for maintaining Liriope (Lillyturf). Prolonged freezing temperatures can do damage to the crown of the plant, so it is best to leave the pruning until early spring when first signs of new growth appear.
Other ornamental grasses such as Japanese Forest Grass (Hakonechloa macra ‘Aureola’) die back in winter but do look attractive in the landscape The same principles apply and pruning is best when performed in late winter/early spring.
Once mid-late spring rolls around, you may notice that some of your landscape plants are in need of some tender loving care. After the lack of snow in some parts of the northeast and prolonged frigid temperatures in the single digits this past winter season, certain plants have been more affected than others by the lack of insulation from snow cover and extreme cold. Another factor affecting the vitality of your plants could the abundant rainfall amounts hitting the eastern seaboard.
Birch trees are one species that the winter has especially taken a toll on. By this time in June, Birch trees should have pushed out most of their new foliage, but you may notice some bare branches and empty spots on your tree. If that is the case, gently scrape the bark or cut a tip off bare stems to see if there is any sign of green. If the cambium growing layer underneath the bark is green, give the tree a little more time to see if it will push out any new growth from those branches. If the layer below the bark is brown, remove the dead branch from the tree to help direct growing energy to where it is needed. Give the tree a good feeding (preferably a deep root application) and some time. The tree should gradually show signs of recovery and continue to regain its health.
Boxwood is another plant which has been affected by the recent weather abnormalities. If your boxwood is looking a little paler than usual with some yellowing in the leaves, it could be a sign of iron deficiency. The abundance of rain here in the northeast has literally “washed” away much of the iron in the soil. Iron chlorosis can develop under conditions that reduce the availability of iron to the plant, such as a combination of cooler than normal temperatures and poor root aeration or soil drainage due to constant moisture. To remedy the lack of iron, apply a liquid iron solution to the soil around your plants. Most supplements will work over time to restore the plant back to good health.
Hydrangea are another plant showing signs of winter damage over the past several years here in the northeast and over other parts of the country. If your Hydrangea is still showing bare stalks above new growth now in June, and stems appear dead, simply prune off the damaged wood to beneath the line of new foliage. As with most flowering plants, application of a plant food that is high in phosphorus in mid-late spring will encourage buds.
Routinely checking your garden in springtime can catch early signs of plant distress and help in avoiding more serious issues down the road. During springtime and throughout the ongoing growing season, early detection of plant issues is a worthwhile practice, After all, a little preventive care can go a long way!
For more gardening tips and design inspiration along with personal musings…
Fall is approaching and a common garden pest, the fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea) can become noticeable on trees, causing unsightly larval nests covering entire branches, resulting in stress to the tree and severe leaf damage. Fall webworm are caterpillars that weave loose webbing around the tree’s outer foliage while feeding on leaves, compared to tent caterpillars that appear in spring and build their more opaque nests within the inner crotch of the branches. The webworm caterpillar is approximately one inch in length with a light greenish-yellow body and black to reddish head. Adults emerge later on as white moths with dark spots on their wings.
The best way to eliminate fall webworm is to remove the infected branches immediately, before the larvae hatch and take over the tree. If the caterpillars have already left the nest, it is recommended to spray with an organophosphate insecticide such as Acephate (contained in Orthene or Sevin) or Malathion. Acephate is both a foliar and soil systemic which keeps on working 10–15 days after application. Malathion is a foliar insecticide which is also commonly used, but note that Malathion may leave a residue. The best proactive method of killing overwintering larvae is to apply a dormant oil in early spring while the tree is dormant. Dormant oil is a more natural solution and works by smothering and killing the overwintering eggs.
In the spring, adult moths emerge and deposit eggs, continuing the life cycle of the caterpillar. These caterpillars may go through as many as eleven growth stages before leaving the web.
For more information on gardening tips and design inspiration, visit my author page or the links below.
Have the temperatures been rising and are you yearning to go out into the garden? Spring is here and it is a time to start planning and prepping the garden for a successful start to the planting season. There are some recommended maintenance tips for getting your garden underway. Here is a list of common gardening tasks to be performed in late winter/early spring. (I recently posted this article on my other blog A Guide to Northeastern Gardening, but felt it was also fitting for here.)
True or False? Any dead material remaining from last year should be removed from your garden now. True. It is best practice to remove dead material from the garden in fall to prevent possible pests and disease in your garden. If you have left annuals or perhaps perennials for winter interest, now is the time to tend to them, along with any weeds that might have survived the winter. Pull out any dead remaining annuals and prune perennials back to the ground to encourage new growth. If cold temperatures are still to be expected, push mulch up around the crown of the plants to protect them from temperature fluctuations.
True or False? New mulching should be applied now before the ground thaws.False. Mulch acts as an insulator and applying mulch before thawing would actually inhibit warming as temperatures rise. Allow the soil to warm, then apply two to four inches of natural pine mulch. When applying, keep mulch several inches away from tree and shrub trunks to prevent oxygen loss and rotting. Mulch benefits plants by reducing water evaporation, preventing weeds, adding organic matter to the soil and also acts as a buffer, preventing drastic changes in soil temperatures.
True or False? Nitrogen based lawn fertilizer can only be applied after April 1st. True. According to the EPA, the prohibition on application of fertilizer between December 1st and April 1st applies to products that contain nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or potassium (K). If a product does not contain any of these nutrients, it could be applied during the winter months without violating this law. Explanation: If the ground is frozen, there is a greater danger of runoff and possible contamination of groundwater. Fertilizers applied when the ground is thawed and porous are absorbed and utilized by plant material and go through a natural filtration process before reaching the aquifer system. Please note that there are a variety of organic, natural fertilizers on the market that are more environmentally friendly. Success rate depends on brand and application.
True or False? Spring flowering trees and shrubs should be pruned in late winter/early spring. False. General rule of thumb is to prune flowering plants AFTER they flower. Early spring flowering trees and shrubs including rhododendron, azalea, forthysia, magnolia, plum, Eastern Redbud and cherry form their buds from the season before and should be not be pruned until after flowering. Pruning them now will remove flower buds that have already formed, resulting in a loss of blooms.
True or False? Summer blooming shrubs such as Spirea and Buddleia should be pruned in spring. True. Mid and late summer flowering shrubs such as Spirea and Buddleia (butterfly bush) prefer a spring pruning to promote fullness and blooms. Prune Spirea slightly for shaping. If the plant is overgrown to the point it is unsightly, it can be pruned more drastically to rejuvenate it now in spring. Buddleia benefits from an early spring pruning and should be pruned all the way back in late winter/early spring to promote fuller plants and better blooms in late summer. This practice is best performed once you see signs of life on your plants.
True or False? The best time to prune evergreens is in early spring. True. Evergreens can be pruned anytime when there is no threat of extreme temperature changes that would cause undue stress; however, the best time is either in early spring before they push out new growth, or afterwards once new candles form. When pruning evergreens that form candles, such as white pine, it is best to cut candles in half to keep the plant more compact.
True or False? Liriope and grasses should be cut back and divided now in spring. True. Liriope and ornamental grasses can be cold sensitive. Exposing the crown of the plant could be the reason for snow and cold damage. It is best to leave liriope and grasses alone in fall and to prune them back in early spring to allow for new growth. Spring is also the time to divide and move other perennials that have become overgrown. It is recommended that most perennials be divided every four years for best bloom. Dig up and divide with a sharp clean spade just as new growth appears, replant and add a sprinkle of slow release plant food in with the soil to help root promotion. Water in thoroughly.
True or False? Knock Out Roses should be pruned back in early spring. True. Wait until your roses are sprouting new shoots and showing some signs of life. Then, prune off dead wood or overgrown branches back about one third the size of the plant to promote strong growth and blooms. Be careful to watch while pruning so that you achieve a nice rounded shape for your plant. Early spring is also a good time to apply an organic slow release rose fertilizer mixed in with the soil at the base of the plant to ensure a successful start to the growing season. I would also recommend a regular watering schedule from the base of the plant, since roses do not fair well with constant water on their foliage.
True or False? Summer blooming bulbs should be planted in late spring. True. While spring blooming bulbs such as crocus, hyacinths, tulips and daffodils are planted in fall, late summer blooming bulbs such as Dahlia, Canna and Gladiolus are planted in spring. Amend the soil with compost or manure to insure them a good start and plant in a well-drained area to prevent rotting. Generally, bulbs are planted at a depth of three times their diameter, and specific instructions are usually supplied on the packaging. Once planted, water your bulbs thoroughly and be sure they get watered regularly. Applying bone meal will give your bulbs energy during the growing season, but do not mix in too closely to the roots.
Will the unpredictable weather we have been having across most of the U.S. and other areas harm my garden? I have been getting asked this question quite a bit over the past couple of years. Generally, plants are pretty resilient. Buds that are forming on the trees early are sparked by the warmer temperatures in daytime but slowed down by the colder nighttime temperatures, which tends to balance out their progress. If there is severe cold for a prolonged period of time, buds could freeze and get damaged, but the tree produces enough buds to still have a bloom. More sensitive plants like old fashioned hydrangea ‘Nikko Blue’ that bloom on old wood are more susceptible to cold and time will tell. If there is die back on your plant, prune out the dead wood and apply a dose of a high phosphorus fertilizer. It could help to boost larger blooms from any undamaged buds. Hydrangea varieties that bloom on new wood, such as ‘Endless Summer’ and ‘Pee Gee’ should winter alright.
Some of my evergreens are a bronze color. Should I be concerned?Winter bronzing is normal on evergreens near the end of winter while temperatures are cold. Once the temperatures rise and new growth is stimulated, the foliage will turn back to a more vibrant green. Broken or dead branches are different in that they are completely dried out and brown. Those branches should be pruned off the tree in late winter/early springtime to prevent any further damage. Any falling or divided tree leads can be arbor tied to secure them and encourage upright growth. Split branches can also be arbor tied together, and if caught in time the cambium growing layer of the tree can mend. In the photograph above, the center upright Western Arborvitae are displaying bronzing and there are no signs of broken branches. As you can see the trees are healthy.
Have you heard about my new book,Landscape Design Combinations? My first bookA Guide to Northeastern Gardening covers recommended plants for zones 3-9 with topics including butterfly gardening, deer resistant plants, shade gardening, perennials, trees and shrubs, evergreens, general maintenance tips and more.
Landscape Design Combinations is a continuation of the previous publication, with greater emphasis on design, including numerous numbered and labeled photographs of successful landscape plans. Topics include elements of landscape design, designing for the seasons, how to build a natural stone patio or walkway, simple container combinations and garden styles throughout the centuries.
Both A Guide to Northeastern Gardening and Landscape Design Combinations were written to provide you with the tools needed to help you to create a successful garden. Click on the links below for more information and previews. I hope to inspire you!
I am excited to announce the publishing of my book, A Guide to Northeastern Gardening: Journeys of a Garden Designer. The idea of writing a book stemmed from my two blogs, A Guide to Northeastern Gardening, which I started in 2010 and this one, A Guide to Landscape Design & Maintenance, which made its debut in 2013.
Over the years, I developed a determination to put all my experiences into words in the form of a published book, and in 2013 I started this endeavor. After much persistence and determination the goal that I had set out to accomplish has finally become a reality. The publication is an accumulation of knowledge combined with personal experiences from over twenty years of being a landscape designer, with a focus on landscape design and plants hardy in a range of zones from 3-9. The book derived its name from my original blog from back in 2010 and there is a storyto be told about how it came to be.
A little bit about the book:
A Guide to Northeastern Gardening is a comprehensive guide of valuable information on plants hardy in a range of zones from 3-9, and gardening techniques backed up by my own personal experiences as a professional landscape designer, along with answers to frequently asked questions. Learn about landscape design principles, butterfly gardening, deer resistant plants, long blooming perennials, globe and weeping evergreens, flowering trees and shrubs, native plantings, shade gardening and more. Whether you are a novice or experienced gardener, A Guide to Northeastern Gardening will help you to create your own dream garden. Come along on my journey into the world of gardening!
A little bit about the author:
Lee Miller is a professional landscape/garden designer involved in the horticultural industry since 1996. Having started a gardening blog in 2010, she is the author of over 150 articles on general gardening, landscape design principles, gardening tips, planting, pruning, garden maintenance, feature plants and more. Her published book, A Guide to Northeastern Gardening, is an accumulation of information touching on a wide variety of gardening topics, all backed up by her own personal experiences.
A preview of my book is now online at Amazonand the publication is available in printed format as well as for kindle. I hope my readers will find A Guide to Northeastern Gardening to be both informative and enjoyable, and wish them all the best in their gardening endeavors!
One of the most important parts of any gardening plan is to make sure that the lawn is looking at its best. A good-looking lawn means that the main and most visible part of the garden is always looking at its best and that you are doing your utmost to keep everything looking great. The grassed area of the garden is the one which is most visible and one which most people will notice first. For those who are intent on getting your grass looking at its best, there are a number of ways in which you can ensure that your lawn restoration and repair needs are kept to a minimum.
Perhaps the first thing which you should pay attention to when it comes to making sure that your lawn is looking great is to take a hint from all of those signs which are so frequently displayed around parks and public buildings. Keep off the grass. It might sound like a simplistic solution, but people walking across your lawn can have a big impact on the health and the appearance of the grass contained within. If you are looking for the best possible results, limiting the time which people are allowed on the grassy areas can be the best bet. While it may not be possible (or desirable) to always stay away from the lawn, it is also important to remember that it is not a football pitch or a pathway. Keeping the sports to a minimum can keep the grass looking at its best.
A great way in which you can get the lawn which you want to get is to go right back to the beginning of the gardening process. By selecting the right type of grass, you can select everything, right from the shade of green to the amount of care which it will require. While it might not seem to be the case, there can actually be a big difference between the different varieties of grass and the different grasses all bring something different to the table. Some are sturdier and require less watering. Others will provide a very vivid hue and be perfect for showing off your lawn. When it comes to making sure that the lawn is looking just how you want it to, taking the time to carefully select the right type of grass can make a huge difference.
One of the biggest requirements for any plant is water. While it might seem that living in areas such as Britain (or on occasion Long Island) provides a rainy day every week, this can actually be a hindrance when it comes to the best garden design and garden maintenance. Because the rain is so frequent and so expected, the warm weather can lull lawn owners into a false sense of security and mean that they forget to waterthe grass as it is something which has to be done so infrequently. While overwatering can be equally as damaging, remember your lawn during the height of summer and should the country be blessed with a heat wave, remember to keep your lawn hydrated for the best possible appearance.
When it comes to getting the best possible lawn care, however, the best solution is often to turn towards the experts. Even if it is a very occasional service, having a professional take a once over on the grass which makes up your lawn can help make sure that you are on the right track when it comes to keeping your garden looking at its very best. For those in need of a great bit of grass care, expert help is ideal.
Bio: (About the Guest Author) Christine is a professional blogger who is engaged in organizing her household and raising her 2 kids. She has extensive experience in writing about different matters related to home maintenance. Currently she is sharing useful gardening tips and ideas.